Ionization refers to the process by which an atom gets or loses one of its electrons. Ions that get their positive charge by losing an electron have a positive charge, whereas ions that get their negative charge from acquiring an electron have a negative charge.
Ions with a positive charge are referred to as cations, whereas ions with a negative charge are referred to as anions. Both cations and anions have a strong pull toward one another. Because of this attraction, atoms are able to bind with one another and create molecules. Ions are repelled in addition by other ions that have the same charge as them. When writing chemical symbols, an ion is indicated by a superscript that is placed after the letters and numbers that represent the structure of the chemical. The precise number of electrons that have been acquired or lost is denoted by a number in a superscript, and the addition of a plus or minus sign indicates whether the charge is positive or negative.