The river birch, scientifically known as Betula nigra, is a type of birch that is unlike any other, and due to its peculiarities, it is an excellent choice as a tree for particular growth conditions. The river birch is a plant that thrives in moist environments and may be seen growing naturally along the edges of streams and creeks, as its name suggests. It thrives in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 9, making it an ideal ornamental option for planting in moist soil or for controlling erosion on river banks.
Attractive Birch Species
The river birch is a particularly lovely species, with a number of qualities that make it an appealing addition to residential landscaping designs. It matures to a height of between 40 and 70 feet and has a spread that is about equal to its height. In this discussion, “fast” refers to a growth rate of up to 24 inches per year when the circumstances for growth are ideal.
The river birch has glossy, dark green leaves that may grow to be up to 7 centimetres long and have the characteristic, nearly triangular form of other birch leaves. The leaf edges have double rows of serrations. Both single-trunked and multi-trunked specimens have a canopies that are gracefully oval in form as they mature. Before falling from their trees, leaves put on a stunning autumn display by becoming a canary yellow colour, as described by the University of Minnesota Extension.
Catkins, either brown or yellow in colour, are produced by river birch trees in the spring. These catkins dangle from the tree branches. These are then succeeded in May or June by a large number of very minute nutlets. Additionally, the bark of the tree is very attractive. It might be a salmon pink colour or a cinnamon colour, and as the tree ages, it will peel back, exposing the lighter bark that is below.
Planting a River Birch
It is much simpler to take care of a river birch if it is planted in an area that is suitable for it, and thankfully, these trees are successful over a large portion of the United States. They can tolerate some shade, but they do need at least some sun, so choose a location that receives at least four hours of direct exposure each day.
According to the Morton Arboretum, these trees thrive in soil that is both wet and well-drained and can withstand some level of flooding. They are not picky about the kind of soil they grow in and may thrive in sand, loam, as well as wet or dry clay soil. In addition to that, they are tolerant to road salt. On the other hand, you should not attempt to place them in soil that is alkaline or in areas that have hot and dry summers.
Before planting, make sure you take into consideration the height of the river birch tree. Because the tree has the potential to get fairly large, with branches that spread out in all directions, you will need to check that the area in which you wish to plant it has enough room for it to reach its full potential.
Caring for a River Birch
According to Gardening Know How, taking care of a river birch is not difficult if you reside in one of the hardiness zones that is ideal for the river birch, and if the soil around your tree is acidic and wet, and it is exposed to the sun. In an ideal situation, the tree should be planted in close proximity to a river or some other kind of water source, so that its roots have easy access to the water they need. If that is not the case, you should water this tree well and often while the weather is dry. It is helpful to spread up to 4 inches of compost or any other organic mulch over the root zone of the tree, while keeping the mulch a few inches away from the tree trunk. This will help protect the tree. This not only helps the soil retain its moisture but also keeps the temperature under control.
Even while river birches may tolerate trimming, the practise is not necessary for the development of a robust branch structure in these trees. Simply remove any branches that are sick, damaged, or dead, being sure to keep the branch collar in place. The river birch is an exception to the rule that it is better to cut other types of trees in the spring before their new leaves grow. Birches are one of the trees that are referred to as “bleeders” because they shed a significant amount of sap if they are cut at this time of year. Instead, prune in the fall at the beginning of winter.
The bronze birch borer is considered to be one of the most destructive insect pests that preys on birch trees. According to Arbor Day, river birch trees are resistant to the invasive species, hence this problem does not arise very often with these trees. They are the most resistant to borer attacks of all of the birches.